The Citizenship Industry

This project funded by a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship examines Citizenship-by-Investment (CBI) with a focus on the powerful ‘Citizenship Industry’ – the corporate sector developing, managing and promoting CBI.

While many countries now offer residence-by-investment (RBI) schemes, an increasing number of countries go further and offer CBI, which allows high net-worth individuals to purchase citizenship regardless of regular naturalisation criteria like residence.

While international borders are hardening, CBI is expanding and multiple passports are fast becoming a prime status symbol of the global super-rich. This project examines CBI and its reformulation of citizenship, redrafting of state-corporate relationships, commodification of mobility and reworking of global inequality. The project maps the ‘new geographies of belonging’ of the super-rich and explores how wealth accumulation and migration are becoming increasingly interlinked projects.

The project will run from Sep 2020 – Aug 2023.

For further information please visit Sarah’s website –


Dr Sarah Kunz, Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies.

Prof Bridget Anderson, Mentor, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies.